0 Handbook of. Overview of Focus Group Research. (2008). Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. %%EOF Thematic analysis (TA) is a data analysis strategy that is a commonly used approach across all qualitative designs and is the subject of this methodology review. This transcript is usually much shorter than is the full transcript in a transcript-based >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. 2nd Ed. Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P.N. They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). 0000001322 00000 n All rights reserved. ... TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. 0000078179 00000 n '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� Quality & Quantity. Qualitative Research. Qualitative and focus group data analysis software MAXQDA offers a wide range of focus group analysis tools, that makes analyzing these transcripts less time-consuming and easier to … <<81F5B61739D6244D904FF6252964F28D>]>> Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). In fact, one of two ‘native’ English speakers’ position as an expert was determined at the very start of the discussion and this, in addition to his background as a relatively experienced teacher, possibly heightened this ‘expert’ position. Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. ), to whether these views changed throughout the discussion (were they influenced by the discussion? (2011). For example, in the Hubei focus group, where all the participants majored in English education, they established a collective voice of ‘English majors’ quite effortlessly, and constructed their narratives as a group of ‘experts’ in their field. 2.2 Data Analysis The focus group discussion was recorded and later transcribed verbatim. On the other hand, this shared status seemed to result in some group members’ opinions being silenced or ignored (see Appendix B for an extract), arguably because of the participants’ evaluation of what is socially desirable and acceptable in their circumstances. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) Consideration 1: Is thematic analysis useful for me? ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� Additionally, the other ‘native’ English speaker, by addressing the ‘non-native’ English speakers as ‘you guys’ heightened this status distinction. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. 4.1.1 Thematic Content Analysis Thematic content analysis can be understood to be an interpretative application of content analysis in which the focus of analysis is on thematic content that is identified, categorized and elaborated on the basis of systematic scrutiny (Banister, Burman, Parker, Taylor & … In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. The focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Well, the only thing that we've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing. Qualitative Report, 16 (5), 1380-1388. 0000000016 00000 n trailer 0000001235 00000 n When preparing this post, I did a quick online search for what people say about focus group analysis and immediately found comments such as the following: “analyzing focus group interviews is not greatly different from analyzing one-person interviews.”, “I personally think that the analysis of focus group data is not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data. 0000007077 00000 n Qualitative research can explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena,1,2 for example patients' experiences of illness3 and the meanings of apparently irrational behaviour such as unsafe sex.4 Data for qualitative study may comprise written texts (e.g. Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2009). The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. 46 (4), 1125-1136. Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. Inductive thematic analysis (TA): open coding: Evaluation of an innovative, evidence‐guided, PBL approach 11: In order to understand the experiences of students and PBL facilitators during curriculum change to a PBL programme, the authors used TA to analyse focus group data: Deductive thematic/content analysis: predetermined categories ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion (how did the other group members react? Codingis the primary process for developing themes by identifying items of analytic interest in the … 0000028099 00000 n Initial data analysis was undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the text to particular themes. I would not even want to try to discuss focus group analysis in much detail in such a short blog post, but I do hope that the above gives you a general idea of what it may involve (and that you will understand that it is definitely NOT the same as individual interview analysis!). %PDF-1.6 %���� 133 0 obj <> endobj This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. The aim of this module is twofold: i) to develop students’ understanding of a range of different approaches to collecting and analysing qualitative data; ii) to give students hands-on experience of undertaking some of these approaches in order to develop their own competence in carrying out qualitative research. recordings of interviews, focus groups or consultations). Newbury Park: Sage. Acocella, I. 0000003324 00000 n In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. Revised on August 14, 2020. The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. �+��`^1 E���e,)̋ Focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once. How to do thematic analysis. The analysis was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. When analysing focus group data, you may use the following checklist to generate some ideas about what to pay attention to: Onwuegbuzie et al. This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis. The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. Focusing exclusively on individual participants’ accounts (which would be the case if “the analysis of focus group data [was] not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data”, as suggested above) would mean that we are overlooking the most unique and valuable aspects of focus group discussion – the group’s views and group dynamics. (2012). How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. Often, TA is used in research studies and subsequently labeled as qualitative research, without providing the necessary details about how the analysis reduced the data into workable themes and the emerging conclusions. Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). After the focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the transcripts. ... use the columns to structure important variables of your data analysis … Smithson, J. They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). Did he/she distance him/herself from the group?). structured interviews, using data extracts from her interviews to illustrate this. 0000002693 00000 n Of the three examples identified that compare analytical approaches, one used focus group data to compare thematic analysis (TA) of a partial dataset with mind-mapping of a full dataset.11 While this paper provides minimal detail regarding the method of comparison, it reported differences in time taken to analyse the data and in the number and presentation of codes. A practical guide to qualitative data analysis still, focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis other! Refer to the Week 5 Handout: content analysis method, K., Green, J. Daly... Thematic content analysis of focus group analysis is Different there is not one way to do qualitative.. Each focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings australian and New Zealand of! 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